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Tolumnia is a genus of orchids belonging to the orchid family, Orchidaceae.




Image of Tolumnia plant at Google

Tolumnia is a genus of orchids belonging to the orchid family, Orchidaceae. The plants are small and usually epiphytic. The pseudobulbs are small or absent. They are covered entirely by leaves. The genus is restricted to the Greater Antilles. One of the species extends to Florida and one into the Lesser Antilles. Some of these species are listed by the Royal Horticultural Society as occurring in mainland Central and South America as well.

The species of this genus are:
– Tolumnia acunae (M. A. Diaz) Nir, 2000 (synonym of: Tolumnia tuerckheimii (Cogn.) Braem, 1986 )
– Tolumnia arizajuliana (Withner & J.Jiménez Alm.) Ackerman, 1997
– Tolumnia bahamensis (Nash) Braem, 1986
– Tolumnia borinquensis Sauleda & Ragan, 1996 (synonym of : Tolumnia variegata (Sw.) Braem, 1986 )
– Tolumnia calochila (Cogn.) Braem, 1986
– Tolumnia caymanensis (Moir) Braem, 1986 (synonym of : Tolumnia leiboldii (Rchb.f.) Braem, 1986 )
– Tolumnia compressicaulis (Withner) Braem, 1986
– Tolumnia gauntlettii (Withner & Jesup) Nir, 1994
– Tolumnia guianensis (Aubl.) Braem, 1986
– Tolumnia guibertiana (A.Rich.) Braem, 1986
– Tolumnia gundlachii (C.Wright ex Griseb.) N.H.Williams & Ackerman, 2007
– Tolumnia guttata (L.) Nir, 1994
– Tolumnia haitiensis (Leonard & Ames) Braem, 1986
– Tolumnia henekenii (Schomburgk ex Lindl.) Nir, 1994 (synonym of Hispaniella henekenii (M.R.Schomb. ex Lindl.) Braem, 1980 )
– Tolumnia leiboldi (Rchb. f.) Braem, 1986
– Tolumnia lemoniana ssp. lemoniana Braem, 1986 (synonym of Tolumnia guianensis (Aubl.) Braem, 1986 )
– Tolumnia lemoniana ssp. guibertiana (A.Rich) Braem, 1986 (synonym of Tolumnia guibertiana (A.Rich.) Braem, 1986 )
– Tolumnia lucayana (Nash) Braem, 1986
– Tolumnia pulchella (Hook.) Rafinesque, 1837
– Tolumnia quadriloba (Schweinf.) Braem, 1986
– Tolumnia scandens (Moir) Braem, 1986
– Tolumnia sylvestris (Lindl.) Braem, 1986
– Tolumnia tetrapetala (Jacq.) Braem, 1986 (synonym of Tolumnia guttata (L.) Nir, 1994 )
– Tolumnia triquetra (Sw.) Nir, 1994
– Tolumnia tuerckheimii (Cogn.) Braem, 1986
– Tolumnia urophylla (Loddiges ex Lindl.) Braem, 1986
– Tolumnia usneoides (Lindl.) Braem, 1986 <:small>
– Tolumnia variegata (Sw.) Braem, 1986
– Tolumnia velutina (Lindl. & Paxton) Braem, 1986

Growing/Caring conditions for Tolumnia
– Select a location which receives natural sunlight.
– Care should be taken that the location is not too hot.
– Indirect light is preferred in summer.
– Plant the orchid in the location.
– Water the orchid well.
– Care should be taken, not to overwater the orchid.
– Keep the orchid moist.
– Plant blooms in the fall to spring.
– Repotting annually is better for some orchids.
– Plant the orchid in a potting mix of mulch for tropical plants.
– Fertilize the orchid with plant food that is specific for orchids.
– Control the way roots get their oxygen because it is an important factor when they grow.
– This plant needs rich and fertile soil.
– This plant needs well draining soil.
– Add tree fern fibers (for small plants), several pieces of coarse fir bark, or sphagnum moss for draining.
– Dead growth and branches should be removed.

The following fungal and bacterial infections are known to attack the plant.
– Leaf spot is caused by Colletotrichum and Gleosporium
– Leaf blight – caused by Pythium
– Collar blocth – caused by Penicilium thomii
– Collar rot – caused by Sclerotium
– Orchid wilt – caused by Sclerotium rolfsli

To avoid the above, fungicides like Captan, Dithane, Agrosan and Ceresan are very effective.
– More than 32 diseases are known to occur on orchids with the most common are Cymbidium mosaic virus.
– All infected plants should be isolated to prevent spreading of the disease for avoiding.
– The most commonly reported insects pests on orchids are thrips, aphids, spidermite, soft scale, mealy bugs, orchid weevil, snail and slugs.
– They feed on tender young shoot, suck the sap and damage the young bud and shoot and also act as the carrier of different diseases.
– These can be controlled by effective insecticides like Parathion, Malathion, BHC, Aldrin, Dieldrin, etc. Metaldehyde has proved to be very effective in killing slugs and snails.





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